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Family Tree of Councillor (Cllr.) Patrick Hynes, Killeenadeema and Loughrea, Co. Galway. 2011 – 1820’s approx.

Family Tree of (Cllr) Patrick Hynes, Killeenadeema and Loughrea, Co. Galway.

The following is the family tree of Councillor Patrick Joseph (Pat) Hynes, Kylegarriff, Killeenadeema, Loughrea, Co. Galway, over a time period spanning approximately 190 years. According to Pat, his branch of the Hynes clan, known as “Hynes’of the Wood” originated from Lydacan Castle (built in 1264), in the Townland of Lydacan, barony of Kiltartan, Gort, County Galway.  Following the land confiscations of the Gaelic families in the 1600’s by Cromwell, Pat’s branch of the Hynes clan, now dispossessed, were evicted.  They were forcibly moved to the townland of Carrowsteelagh, Woodville, parish of Craughwell, County Galway where they spent a number of years on a nine acre parcel of land adjacent to the residence of the late historian Michael (“Major”) Monaghan.  They were then evicted by Darcy, land agent for Clanrickard and driven southwards to Kylegarriff, Killeenadeema, Loughrea. 

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Grandparents of Pat Hynes - www.irelandxo.com

Of particular note was a Domingo/Dominic O’Heyne who was born in 1683 in Cahererillan Castle, Kinvara, County Galway, son of Edmond O’Heyne (Hynes) and grandson of Eugene O’Heyne of Lydacan Castle.  In 1709 Dominic, then Captain of the Irish Dragoons in the Spanish Army, was admitted to the Order of Saint James by the King of Spain. 

Pat Hynes's Parents, Brother, and Sister - www.irelandxo.com In 1950, John B. Hynes (1897 - 1970) was elected Mayor of Boston, USA.  He was the son of Bernard Hynes, Abbey Street, Loughrea who emigrated to Boston circa 1890 and a relative of the Hynes Family, Kylegarriff, Killeenadeema.  In the 1960 U.S. Presidential Election, Mayor Hynes was election agent for President John F. Kennedy (1917 - 1963).  In October 1953, Mayor John B. Hynes paid an official visit to Loughrea where he was accorded a Civic Reception, followed by meetings with and visits to his Hynes ancestors and relatives from: Kylegarriff, Sonnagh, Killeenadeema, Loughrea; Cloon, Ballybaun, Creggaturlough, Craughwell; Gort and other parts of Co. Galway.

In compiling this family tree a number of different sources along with personal recollections were used.  These sources include: the 1911 and 1901 Censuses, Civil/State and Church records, Griffith’s Valuation for the townland of Kyelgarriff and the Tithe Applotment Books for the parish of Killeenadeema which are discussed in detail later.

Patrick Joseph (Pat) Hynes was born in Kylegarriff, Killeenadeema, Loughrea and married Deirdre Mary Lynch from Terenure, Dublin 6.  Pat has 3 children, Marian Frances, John Patrick and Kevin Gerald Denis.  Pat was educated in Sonnagh N.S., Killeenadeema and St. Brendans De La Salle Secondary School in Loughrea. In Dublin he studied Law, Irish History and Genealogy.  

Mayor Pat Hynes - www.irelandxo.com Pat is a member of Galway County Council and Loughrea Town Council and is a former Mayor of County Galway and of Loughrea Town.  Pat has six siblings: Mary Teresa (R.I.P.), Bernard Thomas (R.I.P), Michael, Philomena Mary, John Basil and Martin Anthony. 

Cllr. Pat’s parents were Patrick Thomas Hynes and Mary Donnellan.  According to Pat, his father, Patrick Thomas, was born on the 13th November 1903 in Kylegarriff and died on the 27th September 1990.  Mary was a native of Ballynagreeve, Killeenadeema.  Mary was a daughter of Councillor Patrick Donnellan (1864 – 1951) and Bridget Cunningham (1868 – 1951).  Patrick Thomas married Mary Donnellan on the 14th April 1937 in Killeenadeema parish church.  Mary Donnellan was born on the 8th September 1911 in Ballynagreeve and died on the 16th March 2004 in Kylegarriff.  Mary was a Genealogist and Historian.  Both are interred in Killeenadeema Cemetery, Loughrea.  In addition to Pat’s family lore, previous research conducted by the Centre is also included in Pat’s account of the Hynes family.  

Patrick Thomas Hynes (Cllr. Pat’s father) was a farmer and a teacher in Killeenadeema National School. Patrick Thomas’ father was Patrick Hynes and his mother was Mary Martyn.  Patrick was born in Kylegarriff in 1861 and died on the 22nd March 1939.  He married Mary Martyn on the 3rd February 1896 in Clostoken, Loughrea.  Mary Hynes (formerly Martyn) was born on the 10th September 1872 in Raheen Oughter, Kilchreest and died on the 24th August 1909 in Kylegarriff.  Mary’s father was a Thomas Martyn and her mother was a Margaret Skehill from Caherlavine, Loughrea. 

According to the present day Pat Hynes, Patrick Hynes and Mary Hynes (formerly Martyn) had eight children; Mary, Margaret, Annie, Delia, Patrick Thomas, Catherine, Michael, Teresa.

Mary was born in 1897 and died from old age in 1972 in Cahertrim, Killeenadeema.  Mary Hynes married Denis Casey, Cahertrim, Killeenadeema.  She is interred in Killeenadeema Churchyard. 

Margaret was born on the 14th February 1898 and died from old age in Knockauncoura, Cloonoo, Loughrea in 1974.  Margaret married Michael Fahy from Knockauncoura, Cloonoo, Loughrea.

Annie was born in 1900 and died in her home at Athenry Road, Loughrea in 1961.  Annie married John O’Dea from Caherhenryhoe in the parish of Kilconickny, Loughrea.

Delia Hynes was born in 1902 and died in 1965 at Washington Street, Chicago, Illinois.  Delia was a nurse and married Captain Denis Carroll of the Chicago Police Department who died circa 1941.  He was the son of Denis Carroll, Wexford Town, Wexford. 

Pat Hynes's Parents Catherine was born in 1905 and died on the 3rd May 1999 in Dublin.  Catherine married Garda John Joe Scallan from Wexford town.  Both are interred in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin. 

Michael was born on the 11th September 1906.  According to Pat Hynes he died before the 1911 Census.

Teresa was born on the 19th March 1908.  She became a nun of the Mercy Order, St. Edwards Convent, Harewood Avenue, London NW6.  Her religious name was Sister Mary Joseph Calasanctius Hynes.  She died in Clacton-on-Sea, Essex on the 7th September 1995 and is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, North London. 

Patrick Thomas’ Grandfather was a Patrick (Patch) Hynes and his grandmother was a Mary Joyce.  Pat said that his Great Grandfather Patch was born in 1830 in Kylegarriff and died on the 24th August 1903 in Kylegarriff.  Mary Joyce was born in 1830 in Boleenandorish, Castledaly, Kilchreest, Loughrea and died on the 13th January 1916 in Kylegarriff.  Patrick (Patch) and Mary Hynes formerly Joyce, had nine children; some of whom died in childhood. 

  • Thomas was born on the 16th November 1857 and died young. 
  • Mary was born in 1860 and married Patrick Ford, Raheen, Kilchreest, Loughrea, son of Dermot Ford.  The marriage took place on the 14th February 1884.
  • Anne was born on the 29th August 1863. She married Michael Kennedy Caherlavine, Loughrea on the 25th February 1889.  She died on the 22nd September 1926 and is interred in the Carmelite Abbey Cemetery, Loughrea, County Galway.
  • Margaret was born on the 5th July 1865.  She married Martin Boyle, Tinageeragh Killeenadeema on the 4th February 1891 and died in Tinageeragh, Killeenadeema. 
  • John Hynes was born on the 30th May 1867 and died at an early age.
  • Thomas Hynes was born on the 12th August 1869 and died a bachelor on the 25th September 1947.
  • Bridget Hynes was born on the 6th October 1871.  She married Michael Flynn from Bookeen, Killeenadeema in 1906 and died on the 11th November 1968 in Bookeen, Killeenadeema. 
  • Michael Hynes was born on the 15th January 1874 and emigrated to New York where he married his childhood sweetheart, Mary Fahy.  Mary Fahy was born in 1882.  She was a daughter of Thomas and Bridget Fahy from Ballyargadaun, Leitrim Beg, Kylebrack, Loughrea. They had one daughter Agnes Hynes (born 1907) who married Patrick McGuire and had six children. Agnes worked for many years in St. Agnes’ Roman Catholic Church, Manhattan, New York.  Michael died of pneumonia on the 24th March 1907 and is buried in Calvary Cemetery 3, Section 18, Row 24, Grave site 7, in New York.
  • Catherine Hynes was born on the 10th January 1877 and died on the 19th March 1877. 

Aerial Photo of Kylebgariff Patrick’s (Patch’s) parents were Thomas Hynes and Mary Connolly.  Thomas Hynes was born in Kylegarriff.  Mary Connolly was born in Killaspugmoylan, Kilchreest, Loughrea.  This couple had 3 children.  Their names were Patrick (Patch), John and Mary.  John was born in 1833. He married Bridget Shaughnessy from Ballylin, Craughwell, County Galway.  He died on the 22nd October 1907 in Sonnagh Old, Killeenadeema.  Mary Hynes married Michael Moran. 

Mary Hynes (Cllr. Pat’s Great Grandaunt) married Michael Moran from Sonnagh Old (West) on the 16th September 1847.  Michael died circa 1882.  According to Pat’s knowledge and the previous research conducted by the Centre, this family had at least 16 children.  There is a gap of 6 years between what appears to be the first and second child recorded in the church baptismal records, which may suggest more children could have been conceived and or born and were not accounted for. 

Pat Hynes and Family The names of the registered children were Mary, John, Catherine/Esther, Mary, Anne, Thomas, Margaret, Peter, Michael, Patrick, Michael, Patrick/Patricia/Catherine, Anne, Catherine, Peter and Catherine.  This Moran family demonstrates the high infant and child mortality rates that were prevalent in this era, as it appears that of the 16 children, at least 9 died at an early age.  There was one set of triplets and two sets of twins in this family, some of whom died shortly after birth.  This family also exemplifies the practice of naming children after siblings who were deceased and also the anomalies and errors inherent in both church and state records.  In one instance the same first name, Catherine, was used at least three times with three different children, all of whom died in infancy. 

The children are listed below in chronological order of birth based on Pat’s family history and previous research conducted by the East Galway Family History Society.

  • Mary was born on the 27th July 1848.  As there is another child called Mary in 1856, one assumes this Mary died in early childhood.
  • John was born circa 1854 and died circa 1880 aged 26 years.  There was no baptismal record available for John, his year of birth is based on his age registered on his death record.
  • The triplets were Catherine (Esther according to Pat), Mary, and Annie who were all born on the 15th April 1856. 
  • Thomas was born on the 20th December 1857.
  • Margaret was born circa 1858.  Margaret married Patrick Quirke from Knockauncoura, Cloonoo, Loughrea, on the 5th February 1883. 
  • The first set of twins were Peter and Michael, who were born on the 6th June 1861.  As there are two other children called these first names later, one has to assume this set of twins died.  There are no official death records for Peter and Michael. 
  • Patrick was born on the 19th February 1863.
  • Michael was born on the 25th June 1864 and died circa 1873 aged 10 years.
  • The next set of twins who were born on the 22nd January 1866 according to their baptismal records, were recorded as Patrick/Patricia and Anne.  However, state birth records registered the names as Catherine and Anne.  Also their corresponding death records which stated they both died on the 3rd March 1866 aged 6 weeks, recorded their first names as Catherine and Anne.  Also the first name Anne is similar to the first name Annie given to one of the triplets in 1856, one would assume Annie also died in childhood.
  • The next set of twins were Catherine and Peter who were born on the 5th April 1867.  This would suggest that the previous Peter born in 1861 and who was a twin of Michael must also have died in childhood.  Catherine died on the 1st November 1867 aged 6 months.  Her twin Peter died on the 13th March 1869 aged 1 year and 10 months.
  • Another Catherine was born on the 25th May 1872 and died on the 11th March 1873. 

Most of this Moran family who survived, emigrated to the United States of America. 

Hynes Family 1901 Census Form B1  To conclude with Pat’s own family history and records, Pat said that his Great Great Great Grandfather was James Hynes from Kylegarriff and is buried in Killeenadeema churchyard.  To augment Pat’s family history, the East Galway Family History Society examined the 1911 and 1901 Censuses and located other historical records pertinent to the Hynes family lore which are discussed hereinafter. 

In the 1911 Census Patrick Hynes was recorded as ‘Head of Family’ in house No. 3 in the townland of Kylegarriff in the parish of Killeenadeema.  His age was given as 50 years which implies he was born circa 1861.  Patrick’s occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’.  His martial status was given as a ‘Widower’ which suggests his wife was dead at this time.  No details were provided on the number of years he had been married or the number of children born and still living.  The present day Pat Hynes said that, according to Mary Hynes’ death certificate she died at her home in Kylegarriff, Killeenadeema on the 24th August 1909 after giving birth to a son who also died.

Hynes Family 1901 Census Form B2  Both a church and state marriage record for Patrick Hynes or variant and Mary Martyn or variant was located within the state District of Loughrea and Carrabane church parish records.  The same date of marriage was recorded on both the state and church records, the 3rd of February 1896.  In the state marriage record Pat’s age was recorded as 34 years which suggests he was born circa 1862.  His occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’.  His father’s name was recorded as Pat Hynes and his occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’.  On the church marriage record his name was recorded as Patrick Hynes.  His father was also recorded as Patrick Hynes from Kilgariff.  His mother was recorded as Mary Joyce. 

Mary’s age was recorded as 23 years on her state marriage record which implies she was born circa 1873.  No occupation was recorded for Mary.  Her father’s name on her state marriage record was recorded as Thomas Martyn.  Thomas’ occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’.  On the church marriage record Mary’s father was also recorded as Thomas Martyn.  His address was given as Raheen.  Mary’s mother was recorded as Margt. Skehill.  Witnesses to the marriage on the state record were registered as Thomas Hynes and Catherine A Martyn.  On the church marriage record the witnesses were recorded as Thomas Hynes from Kilgariff and Cath A Martyn from Raheen.  They were married in Clostoken in the parish of Carrabane by Fr. Patrick O’Farrell, P.P. 

In the Hynes Family 1911 Census Form A Census; living with Patrick Hynes were some of his children; Mary, Maggie, Annie, Delia, Patrick and Katie.  Their ages were recorded as 14, 13, 11, 9, 7 and 5 years respectively.

Pat Hynes said that the youngest child Teresa who was born on the 19th March 1908 was recorded in the 1911 Census residing with her mother’s family, the Martin’s, in Raheen Eighter in the parish of Kilconickny.

A search of both the state and church birth and baptism records was undertaken to locate records for Patrick and Mary Hynes’s children.  Three state birth records were located within the state District of Bullaun.  The names of the children were Mary Teresa, Margaret and Annie.  Eight baptismal records were located within the Killeenadeema church registers.  The names of the children were Mary T, Margaret, Anne, Bridget, Patrick T, Catherine, Michael and Teresa. 

Mary’s age in the 1911 Census was given as 14 years which suggests she was born circa 1897.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Scholar’.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers and a state birth record within the State District of Bullaun were located for Mary. On her church baptismal record her name was recorded as Mary T, her birth date was recorded as the 7th December 1896, her baptismal date was recorded as the 8th of December 1896.  Her godparents were registered as Michael Martyn and Bridget Hynes. 

Usually godparents tended to be relatives or neighbours of the child’s parents and quite frequently children of the couple were named after some grandparents, aunts or uncles. 

On Mary’s state birth record her name was recorded as Mary Teresa.  Her date of birth was recorded as the 7th December 1896. 

Hynes Family 1911 Census Form B1 Maggie’s age in the 1911 Census was recorded as 13 years which suggests she was born circa 1898.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Scholar’.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers and a state birth record within the State District of Bullaun were located for Maggie. 

On her church baptismal record her name was recorded as Margaret, her birth date was recorded as the 14th February 1898, her baptismal date was recorded as the 16th February 1898.  Her godparents were registered as Thomas Hynes and Catherine Martyn.  On her state birth record her name was also recorded as Margaret.  Her date of birth was recorded as the 1st March 1898.  There is a small discrepancy between Mary’s day and month of birth on the church and state records. 

Based on research experience the earlier date of birth which was usually recorded on the church records is presumed to be the closest to the correct date of birth.  Owing to high infant mortality and state fines, parents tended to prioritise the baptism of a child rather than the registration of the birth with the relevant authorities.  Additionally as a fine was incurred for the late registration of births and deaths with the state authorities, dates were adapted accordingly to avoid any penalties. 

Hynes 1911 Census Form N Annie’s age recorded on the 1911 Census was 11 years which implies she was born circa 1900.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Scholar’.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers and a state birth record within the State District of Bullaun were located for Annie.  On her church baptismal record her name was recorded as Anne, her birth date was recorded as the 29th April 1900, her baptismal date was recorded as the 30th April 1900.  Her godparents were registered as Thomas Martyn and Mary Forde.  On her state birth record her name was recorded as Annie. Her date of birth was recorded as the 29th April 1900 which is the same as her church baptismal record.

Delia’s age on the 1911 Census was recorded as 9 years which suggests she was born circa 1902.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Scholar’.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers was located for a Bridget Hynes in 1902.  From research experience the first name Delia was often used for the first name Bridget.  This, I believe to be the case in this instance and that Delia Hynes was in fact Bridget Hynes.  On her church baptismal record her name was recorded as Bridget, her birth date was recorded as the 16th March 1902, her baptismal date was recorded as the 18th March 1902.  Her godparents were recorded as Michael Kennedy and Mary Keane.  There was no state birth record available for Delia (Bridget) Hynes.

Patrick’s age on the 1911 Census was recorded as 7 years which implies he was born circa 1904.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers was located for Patrick.  On his church baptismal record his name was recorded as Patrick T.  His birth date was recorded as the 12th November 1903.  His baptismal date was recorded as the 14th November 1903.  His godparents were recorded as Walter Martyn and Anne Kennedy.  There was no state birth record available for Patrick.  Overall there is a very small difference in this example between the year of birth implied on the 1911 Census Form A and the year of birth given on the church baptism record. 

Hynes Tithes Katie’s age on the 1911 Census was recorded as 5 years which suggests she was born circa 1906.  A church baptismal record within the Killeenadeema parish registers was located for Katie.  On her church baptismal record her name was recorded as Catherine, her birth date was recorded as the 23rd September 1905.  Her baptismal date was recorded as the 27th September 1905.  Her godparents were registered as John Kennedy and Delia Keane.  There was no state birth record available for Katie.

Also living with Patrick on the night of the 1911 Census was his mother Mary and his brother Thomas.  Mary’s age was recorded as 80 years which suggests she was born circa 1831.  Mary was recorded as a ‘Widow’ which suggests her husband had died prior to the 1911 Census.  Thomas’ age was recorded as 40 years which implies he was born circa 1871.  His occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’ and his marital status was recorded as single. 

In the 1901 Census a total of nine people of three different family generations were living in house No. 3 in Kylegarriff.  The Head of Family was recorded as Patrick Hynes aged 70 years.  This Patrick Hynes was the aforementioned Patrick’s father whom we know from family lore had married Mary Joyce.  Patrick’s given age would suggest he was born circa 1831.  His occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’ and his marital status was recorded as ‘Married’.  His Language ability was recorded as ‘Irish and English’.  

Mary Hynes’s Education details were recorded as ‘Cannot Read’.  A check of the 1911 Census under the Education section revealed she was apparently able to ‘Read and Write’ in 1911.  One wonders how at a younger age in 1901 she was unable to read but by 1911 appears to have managed the skill of reading.  Mary’s age was recorded as 68 years which implies she was born circa 1833.  In 1911 she was recorded as 80 years.  It seems she has aged by 12 years in the 10 year period between the 1901 and 1911 Censuses.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Housekeeper’.  Her Language ability was recorded as ‘Irish and English’.  As Mary was recorded a ‘Widow’ in 1911 a search for a death record for her husband Patrick was conducted. 

A state death record for Patt Hynes revealed he died on the 24th August 1903 aged 73 years.  There is a slight difference of one year based on his age recorded on the 1901 Census and the age recorded on his death record.  The Informant of his death was his son, Patt Hynes. 

To establish when Patrick and Mary were married a search of our databases was undertaken, unfortunately no record could be found for this couple.  A search for children born to Patrick Hynes and Mary Hynes, formerly Joyce, was undertaken.  Eight baptismal records were located within Killeenadeema church registers.  The names of the children were Thomas, Anne, Margaret, John, Thomas, Bridget and Michael.  The eldest child who was baptised in 1856 had no first name recorded on their baptismal record.  The childrens’ years of birth and baptisms dated from 1856 to 1874 inclusive. 

Two children had the same first name Thomas.  The first Thomas was born in 1857 and the second in 1869.  It was not unusual in that era for a child to be named after a previous sibling who may have died.  Unfortunately there are no pre-1900 church death records available to confirm this and a search of the state death records for the period 1864 to 1869 failed to note the death of a Thomas Hynes from Kylegarriff. 

A search of the state death records for the Hynes family in Kylegarriff revealed two other children of Patrick and Mary Hynes had died at a young age.  Catherine who was born on the 10th January 1877 died on the 19th March 1877 aged 2 months and 14 days.  Her mother Mary was the Informant of her death.  John Hynes who was born in May 1867 died on the 4th March 1869 aged 1 year and 10 months.  The Informant of his death was Patt Hynes. 

Hynes 1901 Census Form A As mentioned earlier godparents usually tended to be relatives or neighbours of the child’s parents and quite frequently children of the couple were named after some grandparents, aunts or uncles.  Some of the godparents given on the aforementioned baptismal records include: John Hynes, Mary Hynes, Patrick Hynes and Margaret Hynes. 

Six state birth records were located within the state District of Bullaun for children born to Patrick Hynes and Mary Joyce.  The names of the children were Margaret, John, Thomas, Bridget, Michael and Catherine.  Their years of birth dated from 1865 to 1877 inclusive. 

At the time of the 1901 Census three of Patrick and Mary Hynes’ children were living with them; Thomas, Bridget and Patrick.  Patrick’s wife Mary and their three children were also living in this household. 

Thomas’ age was given as 30 years which suggests he was born circa 1871, his age in 1911 was recorded as 40 years which also implies he was born circa 1871.  A check of his church baptismal and state birth records reveals he was in fact born in 1869.  There is a two year difference between his year of birth implied on the 1911 and 1901 Censuses and on his church and state birth records.  His occupation was recorded as a ‘Farmer’, his marital status was recorded as ‘Not Married’.  His Language ability was recorded as ‘English’.  In 1911 his Language was recorded as ‘Irish and English’. 

Bridget’s age was recorded as 27 years which suggests she was born circa 1874.  A check of her church baptism and state birth records indicates she was born in 1871.  Again there is an anomaly in this example of 3 years between the year of birth implied on the 1901 Census and the church and state records.  Her occupation was recorded as a ‘Housekeeper’.  Her Language ability was recorded as ‘English’ and her marital status was recorded as ‘Not Married’. 

Patrick’s age was recorded as 39 years which implies he was born circa 1862.  In the 1911 Census his age was given as 50 years which suggests he was born circa 1861.  Unfortunately no church or state record could be located for Patrick to confirm his year of birth. 

Mary’s age was recorded as 28 years which suggests she was born circa 1873.  As mentioned previously, Mary’s father was recorded as a Thomas Martyn from Raheen.  A search for Mary’s baptism and or birth record was undertaken within the Carrabane church registers and the state birth records for the District of Bullaun.  No church baptism record could be located for Mary.  One state birth record was located for a Mary Martyn from Raheen.  Her date of birth was recorded as the 10th of September 1872.  Her mother’s name was recorded as Margaret Skehill.  During the search of the Carrabane baptism records, four other baptismal records were noted for children born to Thomas Martyn or variant and Margaret Skehill or variant.  Their names were Patrick, Michael, Thomas and James.  Their years of birth dated from 1864 to 1870 inclusive. 

Mary’s age, (Mrs Denis Casey) was recorded as 4 years which implies she was born circa 1897.  As discussed earlier in this report her year of birth recorded on her church baptismal and state birth records was 1896.

Maggie’s age, (Mrs Michael Fahy) was recorded as 3 years which implies she was born circa 1898.  Both her church baptismal and state birth records gave her year of birth as 1898. 

Annie’s age, (Mrs John O’Dea) was recorded as 11 months which suggests she was born circa 1900.  Similarly her church baptism and state records gave her year of birth as 1900. 

Hynes Griffith's Valuation Looking at the Griffith’s Valuation for the townland of Kylegarriff in the parish of Killeenadeema in the Poor Law Union of Loughrea, a Thomas Hynes was recorded as one of the Occupiers in 1856.  His Immediate Lessor was the Earl of Clancarty.  This Thomas Hynes was, according to Pat, his Great Great Grandfather who was married to a Mary Connolly from Killaspugmoylan, Kilchreest.

Within the Tithe Applotment Books for the parish of Killeenadeema dating from 1825 a James Hynes was recorded as the Occupant within the townland of Kilegarreeff or Woodpark.  Again, according to Pat, this James was his Great Great Great Grandfather. 

Genealogical Sources used in this Report

The main sources used in the reconstruction of this family history were:

  • Tithe Applotment Books dating from 1825 for Killeenadeema parish.
  • The General Valuation of Rateable Property in Ireland, hereinafter referred to as Griffith’s Valuation dating from 1856 for the Poor Law Union of Loughrea.
  • The Roman Catholic parochial registers of baptisms and marriages for Killeenadeema, Aille and Kilteskill.  There are no pre 1900 church death records available for this parish.  The Carrabane church registers were also consulted.
  • The Civil Registers of births, marriages and deaths for Bullaun and Loughrea.
  • The Censuses of Population 1911 and 1901.

There can be different dates of births and deaths provided per family member within the church and state records.  Usually the earliest dates occur within the church records and are considered to be the closest to the correct date of birth.  This is because a fine was levied for the late registration of births and deaths with the state authorities and therefore families often provided a later birth date to the state to avoid the payment of the fine.  Furthermore, names, townlands and areas are reproduced as they appeared in the contemporaneous records referred to.

It should also be noted that the East Galway Family History Society generally holds Church and Civil baptismal/birth, marriage and death records up to 1900. 

An Explanation of Land Divisions In Ireland

In the aforementioned sources, various land divisions are referred to – Townland, Civil Parish, Church Parish, State District such as Barony, Poor Law Union, County and Electoral District.  Throughout this report these land divisions are mentioned regularly and hence an understanding of each is required.

Kylegariff Six Inch Map The townland (in this example Kylegarriff) is the smallest administrative division in Ireland and can vary in size from two acres to two thousand acres.  The size is often a reflection of the population density and land quality - large townlands for example, are usually hilly or boggy.  All other territorial divisions are collections of townlands.  It should also be noted that many townlands share the same name - there are for example, six Kilmores and five Shanballys in County Galway.

There are two types of parishes - civil and ecclesiastical.  The civil parish is believed to have originated in the thirteenth century.  Each civil parish is usually composed of 25 - 30 townlands and can often cross barony and county boundaries.  Kylegarriff is located within the Civil Parish of Killeenadeema.  The civil parish was used in a number of national surveys in the nineteenth century including the Tithe Applotment Books and Griffith’s Valuation.

There are two main types of ecclesiastical parishes, Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland.  It is the basic area over which a parish priest or minister presided.  The Church of Ireland parishes generally follow civil parish boundaries, whereas Catholic parishes tend to be larger and are often an amalgamation of two or more civil parishes.  The Hynes family lived within the Roman Catholic Church parish of Killeenadeema, Aille and Kilteskill.The barony was introduced as a unit of measurement of land ownership by the Anglo-Normans.  It may originally have consisted of one or several tuatha, which were land divisions controlled by the Irish septs.  The Griffith’s Valuation was carried out on a barony basis and within baronies organised by civil parishes.  If a barony was subdivided or covered parts of two counties, it was known as a half - barony.  The Hynes family lived within the Barony of Loughrea.

The county is the major land division within Ireland and originated with the arrival of the Anglo-Normans in the twelfth century.  Dublin, Kildare and Louth were the first counties established and with the creation by statute of Wicklow in 1606, the framework as we know it today was completed.  The county was and still is, the principal unit of local government and most collections of documents were organised on a county basis.  Some changes were made to county boundaries in 1898.

Under the Poor Law Relief Act of 1838, counties were divided into Districts or Unions in which rates were to be raised locally to provide for the upkeep of the poor.  The original Poor Law Unions for County Galway were Ballinasloe, Clifden, Galway, Gort, Loughrea and Tuam, with Glenamaddy, Mountbellew, Oughterard and Portumna being added in 1849.  The townland of Kylegarriff where the Hynes family resided, is located within the Poor Law Union of Loughrea.

Under the Medical Charities Act of 1851, the Poor Law Unions were divided into Dispensary Districts.  With the passing of the 1863 Act for the registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths, these districts also became the Registrar’s Districts.  Each Poor Law Union became known as a Superintendent Registrar’s District.  Kylegarriff is located within the Loughrea Registrar’s District.

It is important to be aware that the boundaries of administrative land divisions may have changed over the years owing to some of the following reasons:

  • Some townland names may have disappeared altogether; this may be due to Anglicisation, a total change of the original name or amalgamation with other townlands.
  • In the 1830s and 1840s the Ordnance Survey created new townlands, mainly by dividing existing ones.
  • Grand juries were given the power to change the boundaries of baronies in 1823, subsequently some boundaries were changed.
  • Many new Catholic parishes were created in the 1850s and 1860s by amalgamation.
  • A number of Baronies were divided in 1898 leaving parts in different counties.

The biggest change occurred in 1898 with the abolition of the Civil Parish and Barony; these were replaced with the Electoral Districts.  The townland of Kylegarriff is in the Electoral District or District Electoral Division (commonly abbreviated to ED or DED) of Aille.

Church Records

In general, church and state records of births/baptisms, marriages and deaths are the most valuable sources used in the compilation of family histories.  However major differences can occur between the state and church records which are discussed later.

The parish register of baptisms and marriages for the parish of Killeenadeema, Aille and Kilteskill commenced in 1836.  As mentioned earlier there are no pre 1900 church death registers available for this parish.  Killeenadeema, Aille and Kilteskill parish records encompass the townland of Kylegarriff.

Generally Roman Catholic Church records do not chronicle as much information as State records.  Depending on the parish, the records may contain some of the following information:

Baptism records can include: the parish; born and baptism dates; child’s name; parents’ names – including the mother’s maiden name; father’s occupation; sponsors’ names; priest and comment.

The majority of church registers maintained in the nineteenth century were in Latin.  A typical Latin entry in its full form (excluding dates) may read:

“Baptisavi Patricius, filius legitimus Patricii Hynes et Mariae Joyce de Killeenadeema, Sponsoribus: Joannes Hynes et Maria Nilan”.

This translates as “I baptised Patrick, legitimate son of Patrick Hynes and Mary Joyce of Killeenadeema, Sponsors: John Hynes and Mary Nilan”. 

Often, however, the entry would be abbreviated to:

“Bapt. Patricius, fil. Patricii Hynes et Mariae Joyce, Sp: Joannes Hynes et Maria Nilan”.

“Baptised Patrick, son of Patrick Hynes and Mary Joyce, Sponsors: John Hynes and Mary Nilan”.  

In some cases, even the abbreviations are omitted and the entries simply consist of dates, names and places.  From research experience, sponsors tended to be either relatives or neighbours.

In general, church records of marriage contain details regarding the date of marriage; the name of the bride and groom and the names of the witnesses. 

Death records document: the date of death; date of burial; deceased name; age; status and address; deceased father’s and mother’s names; spouse; priest and comment.

All church information included in this report is translated into English.

State Records

State registration of births, marriages and deaths commenced throughout Ireland in 1864. These records are very valuable sources of information, despite their late commencement dates. 

With the introduction of state registration, birth and death information was required to be provided to the local registrar who was usually the doctor, within 21 days.  Late registration resulted in the imposition of a fine.  Hence, in order to avoid the payment of a fine, later birth and death dates were often provided to the registrar.  The informant of such information was obliged to be a relative, a medical attendant or a person present at the event (the birth of the child or the death of an individual).  The priest at a wedding was also required to provide all marriage information to the state.

State records of birth provide the following information: the date and place of birth; name if any; sex; name, surname and dwelling-place of father; name, surname and maiden surname of mother; rank or profession of father; signature, qualification and residence of informant; when registered; signature of registrar and baptismal name if added at a later stage.

State records of marriage record the following: when married; names and surnames of the bride and groom; ages; condition; rank or profession; residence at the time of marriage; fathers names and surnames; rank or profession of fathers; name of officiating priest and the church where the marriage took place.

State death records contain: the date and place of death; name and surname; sex; condition; age at last birthday; rank; profession or occupation; signature, qualification and residence of informant; when registered and signature of the registrar.  While the cause of death is also provided on death certificates the holders of copyright of these records prohibit us from disclosing this information.

In the early decades of state registration it would appear that many events were not registered with the state.  The number of absent records cannot be quantified (although one frequently notices baptismal entries in church registers with no corresponding state birth and vice versa).  Ages provided on the older state records should be treated as ‘approximate’.

Issues relating to Church and State Records

  • Inconsistencies between church and state records frequently materialise particularly in relation to recorded dates.  You may observe that the date of birth recorded on the state record is sometimes later than that on the complimentary church record.  Due to the fact that a pecuniary fine was incurred for late registration of births, marriages or deaths with the civil authorities, informants frequently adapted the date in question to avoid the penalty.
  • Ages recorded as they appear on all genealogical records, should also be treated with a certain guarded scepticism as they were very often based on subjective recollection on the part of the informant rather than on precise documented evidence.
  • Clerical errors and omissions on the part of both state and church authorities account for a sizeable proportion of all general discrepancies.  This may explain why certain births to Patrick Hynes and Mary Joyce appear on the church records but remain absent from the state records.
  • The repetition of a first name within an immediate familial unit occurs regularly and was a result of the practice of naming a new-born after a previous sibling who had died.
  • First names are often entered erroneously in state and church records.  These irregularities are generally related to the custom of using an individual’s second, third or even nickname rather than the first name given at birth.
  • Due to geographical overlapping and colloquial variations in place naming, a large degree of inconsistency occurs in relation to the recording of townlands, with the result that a townland very often changed according to different informant’s testimonies.  The spellings of townlands in state and church records also varied and very often depended on the registrar’s interpretation of the informant’s phonetic delivery.
  • Surnames are reproduced as they appeared in the contemporaneous record referred to.  Family surnames were not of great importance in 19th Century Ireland as persons were often referred to solely by patronyms.
  • More general spelling variations regularly appear in state and church records and are transcribed on information sheets as they appear on the original records.

Nineteenth Century Land Surveys

The Tithe Applotment Books and Griffith’s Valuation are the two most important land surveys for the nineteenth century.  The later survey, Griffith’s Valuation is perhaps the most valuable as it is generally more comprehensive.  Townland areas often appear to vary from the Tithe Applotment Books to the Griffith’s Valuation – this can generally be explained by the fact that very poor quality land was not taxable and hence not included in the earlier survey. 

All lands were included in the Griffith’s Valuation.  The Tithe Applotment Books at their best provide the names of all occupiers of land, the name of their landlord, the amount of land farmed by each occupier, including the quality of the land and the amount of Tithes payable.

The Poor Law Commissioners appointed Richard Griffith to carry out a survey and valuation of the whole country.  This was duly done and the results were published between 1848 and 1865, hence the widely differing years in which volumes are available for various parts of the country.  Officially known as the Primary Valuation of Tenements, it has come to be known to most researchers as Griffith’s Valuation.  Sometimes the survey was carried out and published by Barony and sometimes by Union.  Either way, every civil parish in the area was listed alphabetically and every townland likewise.  Each of the latter was linked to the 6" Ordnance Survey map by the insertion of the relevant OS sheet under the townland name.

Every townland was divided into a number of ‘Lots’.  For each lot, the survey lists the Townlands and Occupiers, the Immediate Lessors (who were not always the owners), the Description of Tenements, the Area and the Total Rateable Annual Valuation – Land and Buildings at that time.  The reference numbers noted in Column 1 pertain to the valuation maps held in the Land Valuation Office, Irish Life Centre, Abbey Street Lower, Dublin 1.  The Valuation Office also holds the original Valuation Books and the ‘Cancellation Books’, which note the changes in land occupier names up to 1973. 

Within the Area category, the land was divided into A. R. and P.  A = Acres, R = Roods and P = Perches; where one acre equals 4 roods and one rood equals 40 perches.

Within the Valuation Column, the money denominations were given as £. s. d., £ = Pounds,

s = shillings and d = pence, where one pound equals 20 shillings and one shilling equals 12 pence.

1911 and 1901 Government Censuses

The 1911 and 1901 Government Censuses are the earliest existing comprehensive national censuses available for research.  There are some fragments available for 1821 but unfortunately, none of relevance to the Killeenadeema and Aille areas. 

The Censuses provide valuable information regarding the type of houses within which families lived as well as general information regarding the members of the household.  While ages are recorded for each member of a household these should be treated as approximate.  The recording of county of birth is very useful in attempting to trace those who migrated within the country.

In the 1901 Census, no marriage information is given.  In the 1911 Census, married women were asked to state the number of years they had been married, the number of children born alive and the number of children still living.

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